Image Credits: ESA
Hubble’s 25 Year Orbit Solves Creation Mystery
“Now the earth proved to be formless and desolate
and there was darkness upon the surface….” – Genesis 1:2
This statement recorded by Moses has been a mystery for thousands of years to Bible scholars and scientists alike… until now. Discoveries made by NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes on proto-planetary disc, show how planets accrete in total darkness from a formless cloud of dust and debris, in the same fashion as Moses described.
The Genesis Debate
For decades there has been a long standing debate between science and religion as to the validity of the Biblical Genesis account of creation. A good part of the Genesis debate has centered on the Bible’s description of how the earth formed. The questions vying for clear cut answers have been; why does the Bible appear to suggest that the earth was created in six literal days, when science suggest it was formed over 4.5 billion years, and why does the Bible appear to suggest that the sun, moon, and stars were created after the earth was formed, when science suggest otherwise?
On the surface the Bible appears to be confusing, and out of step with today’s science, but believe it or not, there is a very simple reason why that is the case. In recent years, much scientific light on the subject of planet formation has come to the fore through recent discoveries made by NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer telescopes. On examining closely the scientific details of planet formation, it becomes easy to see why the Genesis account appears confusing and inaccurate, when in reality Genesis brief description of planet formation coincides exactly with the findings of these two telescopes.
According to the data scientist gathered in 2004 from the dusty disk surrounding the star system CoKu Tau 4 in the Taurus constellation, planets like the Earth are formed from leftover waste and debris from their central star. Planets form inside a proto-planetary disc of dust, starting out in a formless and chaotic state in total darkness, which corresponds to what is stated at Genesis 1 verse 2. “Now the earth proved to be formless and waste.”
Their findings further revealed that as a planet matures inside its dusty cocoon it gradually sucks up all the dust between it and the sun. In the early stages of this process, only diffused light could reach the planet as it slowly emerged from complete darkness. This early stage corresponds to the statement at Genesis 1 verse 3 for day one. “Let light come to be. Then there came to be light.”
Only in the later stages of this process would the direct light from the already existing sun, moon, and stars be visible from the earth as all the dust dissipates. These discoveries correspond to the description given at Genesis 1 verse 14 for day four. “Let luminaries come to be in the expanse of the heavens.”
When you view this and the following NASA’s videos simulating this planet forming process and compare it to Genesis brief description of Earth’s formation, the Bible’s description of planet formation is compellingly accurate in view of the fact that the Hebrew word translated ‘day’ (yom) can mean various lengths of time, not just a 24 hour period. This indicates that the six creative days of Genesis were six creative phases of an unspecified length, which coincides with these scientific discoveries.
The perception by many has been that the earth was created first, in six 24-hour days, and the sun, moon, and stars, came later on day four. These discoveries by Spitzer bring clarity to this account showing that earth formed from dust and debris from the sun prior to day one, and light emerge slowly, some diffused light by day one, full light by day four, allowing the already existing sun, moon and stars to finally be visible from earth.
The following presentation is based on the detailed scientific discoveries on proto-planetary disc made in recent years by the NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer telescopes. It is inside these discs where planets like earth form from thick clouds of dust, which provide conclusive answers to settle this ongoing debate about how earth was created. It is also based upon a study of the Hebrew language to get to the original meaning conveyed by words used, such as day, create, make, light, and luminaries to capture the true context of the creation account.
The following presentation of this subject matter is the results of five years of intensive research. There are many links to NASA’s data that contain much detail on planet formation that validates these scientific findings. If you have the patience to follow the links, and study the details presented below, you will be rewarded with a clearer scientific understanding of how planets like earth form in a way that coincides with Genesis brief description of earth’s creation, in the context of its original Hebrew language.
Modern science has proved to be a very valuable tool to man in his quest to understand how we got here. Often time’s science gets it right, but sometimes it gets it wrong, at least for a while. For example; in the early 1900’s the prevailing view of the cosmos was that the universe consisted entirely of the Milky Way Galaxy.
However, using the Hooker Telescope at Mt. Wilson, Edwin Hubble identified the Andromeda and Triangulum Nebulae. His observations, made in 1922–1923, proved conclusively that these nebulae were much too distant to be part of the Milky Way and were, in fact, entire galaxies outside our own. This idea had been opposed by many in the astronomy establishment of the time. Today, due to the discoveries made by the Hubble telescope we now understand that the universe is made up of over 125-billion galaxies, and that number continues to grow as we peer deeper into space. This and many other scientific examples clearly demonstrate that a scientific theory of how things happened is just that until all the facts are established beyond doubt. History has shown that in time the facts will surface.
The Book of Genesis
Perception sometimes hides the true reality. The general perception is that the ocean is blue, but when you examine the facts you will find it is not blue at all, but clear. The perception by many today is that the Genesis record says God created the earth in six literal days, and the sun, moon, and stars were created after the earth was formed. This belief has put Genesis and science at odds, because such a view goes against modern day scientific discoveries. To determine the true color of the ocean, you need to look at all the facts in order to uncover the truth. The same is true with the Genesis account, and all the facts must match the science. Click on the images in this presentation for more details.
When many read the Genesis account in their native tongue, such as English, they are lead to the perception mentioned above. What is the truth, and does it match today’s science? The truth is that when you examine the Genesis account in the context of its original Hebrew language a completely different picture emerges from today’s perception.
In the scriptures, the Hebrew word for “day” (‘yom’) is often used in a literal, figurative, or even symbolic sense representing various lengths of time. In Biblical Hebrew, the meaning of a word almost always depends on the context. On the first creative day, “God began calling the light Day, but the darkness he called Night.” Here only a portion of a 24-hour period is defined by the term “day”. There is no basis in the Scriptures for arbitrarily stating that each day was 24-hours long. There are numerous examples in the Hebrew text where the word “day” represented more than a 24-hour period.
For example; when summarizing God’s creative work, Moses referred to all six creative days as one day at Genesis 2:4. Many Bible scholars today recognize these were not six literal 24 hour days, and agree with today’s science. When examined in this original Hebrew context, the Bible’s description in Genesis and today’s scientific discoveries about planet formation coincide, as you will see below in this compilation of scientific discoveries made by NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer telescopes in recent years.
The creation account given in Genesis is not an eye-witness account, because there were no humans present when these events took place. The Bible doesn’t state how long the creative days were; however the wording of Genesis chapter one and two indicates that considerable lengths of time were involved. Also you must take into account, Moses wrote Genesis from an earthly perspective. When reading Genesis, today’s reader must also keep in mind that Genesis was written thirty-five hundred years ago in Hebrew, in simple terms or language for a people who had no knowledge of science or astronomy. The language employed is not scientific or technical in nature.
Biblical Hebrew contained very few words relative to today’s modern languages. Strong’s exhaustive concordance lists 8674 words in the Hebrew dictionary. The actual number of root words is usually taken to be 2500. By way of contrast, the Merriam Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, unabridged lists over 450,000 words and the Oxford English Dictionary 1989 (2nd edition) lists over 615,000 words. Therefore, the Biblical Hebrew vocabulary was much smaller than most modern languages. It stands to reason that most Hebrew words had several meanings, which were to be interpreted based on the surrounding context. Also, it was not possible in Biblical Hebrew to express many of the nuances we find in modern languages.
In the creation account there was no need at the time for God to give man the fine details we have today about how the universe formed, because no one would have understood the science behind gravity, star, galaxy, or planet formation, as we know it today. Think of it this way; why would a parent try to explain to an infant how they were conceived and developed in the womb? It would be pointless to do so until the infant matured and was equipped with much more knowledge and comprehension.
While it is not a science book, when examined closely in the context of its original Hebrew language Genesis proves to be scientifically accurate when it comes to scientific matters regarding creation of the universe, the earth, and especially when it comes to planet formation as has been revealed in recent scientific discoveries.
Genesis and Astronomy Come Together to Give a Full and Accurate Picture of Creation
Genesis 1:1 __Universe Forms In [the] beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
The Bible states, “In the beginning God Created (“bara”) Heaven and Earth” (Hebrew “bara” “means bring into tangible existence, to literally create anew. This Hebrew word is different than the word (‘a•sah’) used later in Genesis 1:16 regarding the moon, and stars, mentioned on day four.
A number of Bible scholars agree that this statement describes an action separate from the six creative days from verse 3 onward. The implication is profound. According to the Bible’s opening words, the universe, including the stars, and our planet, Earth, was in existence for an indefinite time before the six creative days began.
The bible, at Genesis 1:1 does not specify the actual age of the heavens and earth and is not at odds with the science that indicates that the universe is over 13 billion years old. While this basic biblical statement made by Moses in 1513 (B.C.E.) left out the details of the creation of heaven and earth, no doubt April 24, 1990, will do down in history as man’s greatest scientific accomplishment to date toward learning the details of this dramatic event.
With the launch of the Hubble space telescope in 1990, and later the Spitzer telescope in 2003, man for the first time, was able to look back in time to photograph and study how the universe formed. Hubble has peered back over thirteen billions years to within 380 million years of what is commonly known as the Big Bang, to see how stars, galaxies and finally planets formed. What Hubble, and Spitzer have captured is truly remarkable, and in fact, a photo drama of creation itself, and is providing mankind with a front row seat to the greatest cinematic drama in human history.
From our seemingly microscopic vantage point in the vast universe, this universal event would have appeared as a massive explosion of energy from a point of singularity, but what eventually emerged from it was anything but a chaotic explosion. Hubble has revealed a cosmic web that serves as the backbone to an orderly universe. This dynamic event matches the Genesis simple statement “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” No details were given as to how this was accomplished, only the Who. We are now getting the details through our insatiable quest to the stars.
Now you may ask; how can you get orderly design out of an immense explosion of energy? Here is one example. Have you ever been to a fireworks display? What did you see? You saw an explosion of raw energy in the form of gunpowder, yet it resulted in a beautiful organized display of color and design. Fireworks (devices) take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light, smoke, and floating materials.
Fireworks were originally invented by the Chinese for entertainment purposes. This was a natural extension of the Chinese invention of gunpowder. In China, they were first made by fireworks masters who were well-respected for their knowledge of the many complex techniques used to create truly dazzling fireworks displays. Yes, complex techniques required by skilled craftsmen are necessary to create the right effects, not just some gunpowder packed into a rocket and exploded.
The Universe may have begun with what appears to us as a dynamic explosion of energy, as the theory suggests, but it was not a disorganized explosion like a keg of gunpowder
exploding on a universal scale. The Hubble and Spitzer telescopes have revealed that galaxy clusters and super clusters are structured in forms that resemble filaments in a massive cosmic web. The universe may have emanated from an explosive beginning, much like a beautiful exploding fireworks display, but it appears to have been controlled and organized by technical and creative design. By clicking on the image above you can view The Millennium Simulation which was run in 2005 by the Virgo Consortium, an international group of astrophysicists from Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan and the United States to show the complex structure of the universe. Turn up your sound volume and listen to the peaceful music as our structurally complex universe unfolds.
Perhaps the DNA of the universe, so to speak, was built into the initial cosmic seed that grew into the complex cosmic web we call our universe, just as an embryo with its DNA built in, can in time, grow into a complex human being, or how a single acorn seed can grow into a forest as it feeds upon energy rich soil. There is an obvious connection between the growth and expansion of star and galaxy structure in the universe and dark energy. The galaxies, stars and planets all move in graceful precision —truly a living orchestra playing in symphony as if they are being conducted by a Grand Master conductor.
Genesis 1:2 ___Earth Formless “Now the earth proved to be formless and waste and there was darkness upon the surface of the watery deep”
Without knowing the scientific process behind planet formation, for thousands of years this statement has made no real sense to Bible scholars or scientist. However in 2004 astronomers using NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope probed the dusty disks that surround young stars, to look for the earliest signs of the formation of planetary systems. What they found (as depicted in this NASA video), in the disk surrounding the star CoKu Tau 4 in the Taurus constellation appears to match the brief description of planet formation described in the book of Genesis regarding earth’s own formation, thus validating the Bible to be scientifically accurate.
According to the data scientist gathered from this telescope, planets like the Earth are formed from leftover waste and debris from their central star. According to these discoveries, planets form inside a proto-planetary disc of dust and debris, starting out in a formless and chaotic state in total darkness, corresponding to what is stated at Genesis 1 verse 2. “Now the earth proved to be formless and waste.”
Discoveries show, as planets grow in size, they remain deep inside this vast cloud of dust hidden from the light of its central star in its early stages, as seen in this NASA produced image. As dust and debris clumped together to form the core of earth it was if, it was encapsulated inside a cocoon of dust in total darkness for perhaps millions to billions of years, before any luminaries would be visible from earth.
GENESIS 1:3 DAY 1 __ Diffused Light “Let there be light, and there was light”
___ DIFFUSED LIGHT FROM ALREADY EXISTING SUN FILTERS THROUGH TO EARTH
“Let there be light,” (‘ohr’) and there was light (‘ohr’). (The Hebrew word here used for “light” is ‘ohr, meaning light in a general sense / diffused light). This word has a different meaning than the word used on day four (ma•’ohr), meaning the source of the light.
Genesis 1:1, 2 relates to a time before the six creative “days”. When these “days” mentioned in verse 3 commenced, the sun, stars, and earth were already in existence. A careful consideration of the Genesis account reveals that events starting during one “day” continued into one or more of the following “days”. For example before the first creative “day” started, light from the already existing sun was somehow prevented from reaching earth’s surface, possibly by remaining proto-planetary dust or thick clouds, (Job 38:9) or at some point when the Sun transitioned from a protostar into a main-sequence star to generate enough light to break through the dense atmosphere, or a combination of all these conditions. During the first “day” this barrier began to clear, allowing diffused light to penetrate the atmosphere.
The Hubble and Spitzer telescopes have observed proto-planetary disc fade over time which would have allowed, only diffused light (not direct sun light) from the sun to gradually penetrate earth’s water (murky water at first) covered surface, and dense cloud mass corresponding to day one of the Genesis account.
The discoveries simulated in this NASA video could be seen as the most important piece of scientific evidence in support of the Genesis account. It represents the full act of earth’s creation from a formless state, with tiny partials of dust and debris clumping together in complete darkness, to eventually form a full grown planet. As the dust cleared in the beginning as it was sucked up by the planets, light from the sun gradually reached earth’s surface. Diffused light at first set into motion a process of photosynthesis used by plants and other organisms to convert the light energy captured from the sun into chemical energy that would be used to fuel the organism’s activities that eventually lead to a planet teaming with life. As the dust in the solar system cleared away in its mature stage, direct light from the already existing sun, moon and stars became visible to distinguish between day and night to serve as a means to keep time, and serve as luminaries to provide points of navigation for the migration of birds and animals. Finally, in time the earth would be ready for human habitation.
Such dusty disks as simulated in the above NASA video are where planets are thought to be born. Dust grains clump together like snowballs to form larger rocks, and then the bigger rocks collide to form the cores of planets. As you watch the above video keep in mind that it represents perhaps millions, to billions of years of time while the planet was maturing, and that light reaching the earth would have been a slow and gradual process. Only diffused light from the sun would be visible in the early stage (day one) with no visibility from the moon or stars. Full direct light from these luminaries would be visible only after the dust and clouds cleared in the later stage (day four).
Think of the transition process that accrued on earth between day one and day four this way; say you woke one morning before dawn to a very dense fog (the fog representing all the dust that’s blocking the sun). At first you would be in total darkness, then slowly you would see diffused light, and as the fog slowly begun to dissipate you would begin to see direct sun light. As the fog continued to clear you would see the lingering moon and some stars as dawn approached. That was the transition phase the earth was in until the end of “day” four based on these scientific discoveries.
In 2005 a stellar prodigy was spotted about 450 light-years away in a system called UX Tau A by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope. Astronomers suspect this system’s central Sun-like star, which is just one million years old, may already be surrounded by young planets. They saw a gap, potentially carved out by planets, around a dusty Sun-like star. In almost all other star systems of this age, they typically saw a primordial disk — a thick disk of dust, without any clearings. When rocks revolve around their central star, they act like giant cosmic vacuum cleaners, picking up all the gas and dust in their path and creating gaps.
GENESIS 1:6 Day 2 __ An Expanse
And God went on to say “Let an expanse come to be in between the waters and let a dividing occur between the waters and the waters”
Genesis 1:2 mentions the watery deep, indicating that for some time prior to “day” one, the earth was already covered with water which is consistent to what scientist have discovered. A new model of the early Earth suggests that until around 2.5 billion years ago oceans covered almost the whole of the planet. At some point on “day” two there occurred a separating of the waters that were on the earth and the thick clouds that would be above the earth creating an expanse between the ocean and a thick gloom of clouds. Even though some of the dust would have been sucked up by the planet by now, the water covering the earth as well as the thick atmosphere would remain clouded for some time allowing only diffused light to filter through. The moon and stars would not be visible during this early stage.
GENESIS 1:9 Day 3 __ Dry Land Appears
About a billion years ago, scientists think the continents emerged relatively suddenly from an ocean that covered 95 percent of the Earth’s surface, according to a new theory by Eldridge Moores, a geologist at the University of California. The appearance of large masses of dry land would have caused more extreme weather, changes in ocean currents and the emergence of proper seasons. In turn, these environmental changes may have led to rise in atmospheric oxygen that enabled the explosion of new life forms around 500 million years ago.
And God went on to say: “Let the earth cause grass to shoot forth, vegetation bearing seed, fruit trees yielding fruit according to their kinds”
As the sun’s light gradually reached earth the process of photosynthesis began to occur, and the earth was blanketed with green vegetation of every kind to serve as food for living creatures that would arrive during days five and six. The Bible’s narrative allows for the possibility that major events during each day, or creative period, occurred gradually rather than instantly.
GENESIS 1:16 Day 4 __Full Unobstructed Light
“And God proceeded to make the two great luminaries, the greater luminary for dominating the day and the lesser luminary for dominating the night, and also the stars.”“
___SUN, MOON AND STARS MADE VISIBLE FROM EARTH…. NOT CREATED!
“And God proceeded to make (‘a•sah’) the two great luminaries (ma•’ohr), the greater luminary for dominating the day and the lesser luminary for dominating the night, and also the stars.” (the Hebrew word ‘a•sah’ does not mean to create as with ‘bara’ in Genesis 1:1 where it says “God created Heaven and Earth,” but rather to prepare or bring forth / make visible what was already existing). The Hebrew word ma•’ohr’, means the source of the light.
The source of the once diffused light (seen since day one) is now fully revealed (by day four) to be the already existing sun. This is evident by the discoveries by Hubble and Spitzer made from 2004 – 2007 as they observed the dense dust around young planets, opposed to, very little dust around older, more mature planets.
In 2004 two of NASA’s Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope, provided astronomers an unprecedented look at dusty planetary debris around stars the size of our Sun. Spitzer has discovered for the first time dusty discs around mature, Sun-like stars known to have planets. Hubble captured the most detailed image ever of a brighter disc circling a much younger Sun-like star. The findings offer “snapshots” of the process by which our own solar system formed, from its dusty and chaotic beginnings to its more settled present-day state
“Young stars have huge reservoirs of planet-building materials, while older ones have only leftover piles of rubble. Hubble saw the reservoirs and Spitzer, the rubble,” said Dr. Charles Beichman of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. He is lead author of the Spitzer study. “This demonstrates how the two telescopes complement each other,” he added.
The young star observed by Hubble is 50 million to 250 million years old. This is old enough to theoretically have gas planets, but young enough that rocky planets like Earth may still be forming. The six older stars studied by Spitzer average 4 billion years old, nearly the same age as the Sun. They are known to have gas planets, and rocky planets may also be present. Prior to these findings, rings of planetary debris, or “debris discs,” around stars the size of the Sun had rarely been observed, because they are fainter and more difficult to see than those around more massive stars.
Debris discs around older stars the same size and age as our Sun, including those hosting known planets, are even harder to detect. These discs are 10 to 100 times thinner than the ones around young stars. Spitzer’s highly sensitive infrared detectors were able to sense their warm glow for the first time.
Rocky planets arise out of large clouds of dust that envelop young stars. Dust particles collide and stick together until a planet eventually forms. Sometimes the accumulating bodies crash together and shatter. Debris from these collisions collects into giant doughnut-shaped discs, the centers of which may be carved out by orbiting planets. With time, the discs fade and a smaller, stable debris disc, like the comet-filled Kuiper Belt in our own solar system, is all that is left.
These discoveries made by Hubble and Spitzer of how planets form from clouds of thick dust in darkness, and mature over time as the dust dissipates gives a clear and correct understanding of the Genesis account.
From this scientific data it appears that day one would correspond to what Hubble observed about the early stages of young planets, 50 million to 250 million years old that had clouds of thick dust. In this early stage, only diffused light from the sun would reach the earth, and the moon and stars would not be visible from earth’s surface.
It appears that day four would correspond to what Spitzer observed about the later stages of older planets that averaged 4 billion years old where the discs faded and a smaller, stable debris disc, like the comet-filled Kuiper Belt in our own solar system, is all that is left. In this later stage the direct light from the sun would be visible, as well as the moon and stars, as could now be seen from earth’s surface.
In light of these scientific discoveries it is clear that the current belief by some, that the earth was created before the sun, and stars, is a mis-application of the scriptural text due to it not being interpreted in its original Hebrew language. This incorrect belief creates a conflict with the scientific discoveries by Hubble and Spitzer when there really is no conflict between these discoveries and the statements made in Genesis, on planet formation.
Based on the collective discoveries of the Hubble and Spitzer telescopes about star and planet formation it becomes clear, that as a star forms in its early stages it produces a proto-planetary disc of dust and debris. Inside this disc is where planets form from the dust and debris clumping together as they revolve around their central star in complete darkness to form the cores of planets. The early stages of this process corresponds with Genesis 1:1 “Now the earth proved to be formless and waste there was darkness upon the surface of the watery deep”.
As time passed the planet grew in size much like a snow ball rolling in the snow. The larger the planet grew, the more dust and debris it sucked up until it became like a giant vacuum sweeper sucking up all the dust between it and the sun. In time as the dust was suck up, the planet matured and became covered with water and thick clouds, as diffused light began to filter through to earth’s surface corresponding to day one of Genesis 1:3 “Let there be light,” (‘ohr’) and there was light.”
In the gradual and final stages, as the planets around our sun matured, they sucked up most of the dust in the solar system. Eventually Solar wind from the Sun created the Heliosphere and swept away the remaining gas and dust from the proto-planetary disc into interstellar space, ending the planetary formation process with only the Kuiper belt left over. This allowed the direct light from the already existing sun, moon, and stars to become visible as seen from earth.
This stage corresponds to day four of Genesis 1:16, “And God proceeded to make (‛a•sah’_bring forth) the two great luminaries (ma•’ohr), the greater luminary for dominating the day and the lesser luminary for dominating the night, and also the stars.”
The perception by many has been that the earth was created first, and the sun, moon, and stars, were created later on day four. These discoveries by Hubble and Sptizer on proto–planetary disc bring clarity to this account. It shows that the sun began to form first then the earth formed from leftover dust and debris prior to day one, and light emerge from the sun slowly, some diffused light by day one, full light by day four, allowing the already existing sun, moon and stars to finally be visible from earth.
When one views the videos and images produced by NASA, and research the supporting data on proto-planetary disc it is easy to see that the chain of events took place just as the Genesis account describes it in its original Hebrew worded context. When viewed in this context there is no conflict between the Bible and today’s science, thus validating the Genesis account of planet formation to be scientifically accurate!
This presentation is based on the studies of proto-planetary disc and does not go beyond day four of the Genesis account, and does not include any data or suggest how complex life came into existence.
This study does show however, that when weighing the Genesis account about how complex life formed, against today’s science, one must take into account the context of the original Hebrew wording describing the events that accrued on days five and six, to arrive at the correct understanding of what the Genesis account actually conveys!